Recently there has been a global concern on Persistent organic pollutants due to its negative effects on environment and human health. Despite this, very little scientific data exists from small island developing states (SIDs). Project POPS is about an investigation into a toxic cocktail of POPs chemicals that poses a threat to human population and our environment. This book looks specifically into chemicals that are present in Fiji’s abiotic environment. A number of chemical culprits that are not produced in Fiji or the Pacific Region are identified by their concentration, toxicity and presence in various land-use areas where they reside. Monitoring POPs in Fiji’s abiotic environment reveals possible illegal use of pesticides, unknown sources for dioxins and brominated compounds that are used as fire retardants or used in upholstery. Further, provides information regarding contamination by long range atmospheric transport. This book, therefore, provides an insight into POPs situation in SIDs. The findings should help shed some light on future monitoring of POPs in SIDs and is particularly useful to professionals in the scientific community.